Community Typology for Agricultural Holdings
– according to SGM parameter (up to 2009 incl.)

Community Typology for Agricultural Holdings (CTAH) based on Standard Gross Margin parameter was applied up to 2009 inclusive.




Standard Gross Margin is the balance between 3-yearly average value of output of an agricultural product (crop or livestock) and 3-yearly average value of specific costs incurred, in average production conditions in particular geographical units (regions).


Standard Gross Margin coefficients
During the time when SGM was in force, 3 sets of Polish regional SGM coefficients (in line with EU standards) for required reference periods were prepared in Agricultural Accountancy Department:

  • SGM „2000” (reference period 1999-2001),
  • SGM „2002” (reference period 2001-2003),
  • SGM „2004” (reference period 2003-2005).

SGM coefficients of Member States (after you choose the wanted country/flag, the Excel file will be downloaded, where one of the spreadsheets includes SGM coefficients)


Classification of agricultural holdings
In compliance with rules concerning the classification of agricultural holdings, farms with agricultural production are grouped according to unified standards, i. e. economic size and type of farming, taking into consideration the location of these farms in 1 of 4 Polish FADN regions.


The economic size determined in line with CTAH assumptions up to 2009 is expressed in European Size Unit (ESU). 1 ESU was the equivalent of 1200 EUR.

For the converting national currency into Euro, the following exchange rates communicated by the European Commission for each reference period have been applied:

  • for SGM „2000”: 3,96822 PLN,
  • for SGM „2002”: 3,9740 PLN,
  • for SGM „2004”: 4,3177 PLN.

Type of farming is characterized by the relative contribution of different groups of agricultural activities to the holding’s total SGM.


Classification of agricultural holdings operating in Poland is developed by the Central Statistical Office (CSO) with the use of results of Farm Structure Surveys (FSS) and sets of classification coefficients, which were Standard Gross Margins (SGM) up to 2009 incl.

SGM setsFarm Structure SurveysFADN accounting years in the context of selection plan
SGM "2000"Agricultural Census "2002" (full FSS)2002-2006
SGM "2002"FSS "2005"2007-2009
SGM "2004"FSS "2007"----

In Poland the first typology of agricultural holdings in accordance with the criteria used in the European Union, was developed with the use of results of the Agricultural Census “2002” and regional Standard Gross Margins “2000”. As a result, the selection plans of farms for Polish FADN in accounting years 2002-2006 were prepared.


The results of FSS “2005” as well as regional SGM “2002” coefficients were used to update the typology of agricultural holdings operating in Poland in accordance with the EU standards. As a result, the selection plans of farms for Polish FADN in accounting years 2007-2009 were prepared.


SGMs “2004” are the set of updated coefficients on the basis of SGM “2002” and it was the base for developing the first set of classification coefficients obligatory from accounting year 2010 (i. e. SO “2004”).


Basic regulations and methodology